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Production process of traditional Hanji

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  1. 1.Harvesting paper mulberry
    Between November and February every year, one-year-old branches of paper mulberry should be harvested because their well grown tender, soft fiber and adequate moisture are good for making tissue. Paper mulberry is referred to original paper mulberry and its quality is better than native mulberry.
  2. 2.Paper mulberry (Steaming)
    Harvested paper mulberry should be steamed to strip the bark. At first, vigorous steam comes out. When completely steamed, it emits aroma with less steam. It is time to make sure the condition of steamed and pulpy paper mulberry with sticking.
  3. 3.Striping
    After steamed, paper mulberry is easy to strip the bark. If the bark of stripped paper mulberry is dried under sunshine in bundles, it turns black. If the black bark is swollen in flowing stream for 10 hours, it turns white after peeling.
  4. 4.Boiling
    Peeled white bark needs to be boiled until it gets soft. To remove most of substances which is not fiber inside of white bark, after it gets enough swollen in water, it is boiled with water for 4∼5 hours.
  5. 5.Washing and Sun Bleaching
    After well boiled base material is still left for one night, sun bleaching at flowing clean water makes the white bark much whiter. However, this method has disadvantages to take too long and many times of mixing evenly. Today, bleach powder is used and later washed with water.
  6. 6.Removing dust
    After washing and bleaching process, base material goes through picking specks. Specks caused by hail, frost damage, harmful insects, or sprout stain should be removed hand by hand.
  7. 7.Battering
    Base material is beated on stone or wood plate for 40∼60 minutes. If torn paper mulberry fiber swells 2 times as much as the first white bark’s volume, the process is over. However, machinery method is often used today. Aside from the method to beat base material directly, there is another way to cut base material and make pulp.
  8. 8.Mixing raw materials
    Base material of which fiber is completely untangled, is put in a container, and stirred and mixed well with a stick. When base material is completely untangled, sap of abelmoschus manihot medicus (paper mulberry paste) is added. To keep generally definite concentration of fiber, it should be stirred again. The vegetable paste of abelmoschus manihot medicus keeps fiber arrangement even and loses its viscosity when it dries. It is good for drying paper.
  9. 9.Hanji paper making
    Traditional paper making method of Hanji is making paper with one paper bed. Base material diffused at a container for making paper is scooped as a sheet. Motions in water are scooping “water in front” and draining it at the back, scooping “side water” and draining it to the other side with one paper bed on the frame tied to one string from the ceiling. If the motions are repeated 2 times, adequately thick wet paper is made. To control the thickness, 2 sheets of wet paper are layered from the opposite direction and made into 1 sheet of paper. This way, the paper gets tough and strong.
  10. 10. Draining
    After scooping and stacking up about 400∼500 sheets of paper, they need long time to drain water slowly and completely to be stripped out easily. One sheet by one sheet of paper are stacked and they are drained on the paper beds by using round containers. This work makes the shape of the paper bed appear. If the rounding work isn’t done, the shape of the paper bed doesn’t remain.
  11. 11. Drying
    One sheet by one sheet of the drained paper can be dried on heated floor of ondolbang. They can be dried by brushing or putting on the walls or under sunshine. This drying method enables paper to be dried overall evenly and toughly without wrinkle because moisture is dried slowly. At this present times, hot plate drying method is used. It is a way to lay moist and wet paper on dry steel plates, heat them with steam, and spread and dry one sheet by one sheet of paper on them.

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